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The effects of potato virus Y-derived virus small interfering RNAs of three biologically distinct strains on potato (Solanum tuberosum) transcriptome

September 19 2017 by INKOA
Resource image of the African potato platform

Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. 

The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR. Results The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3′ UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic information processing, plant-pathogen interactions, plant defense and stress response processes in potato. Conclusions The findings suggested that the PVY-derived vsiRNAs could act as a pathogenicity determinant and as a counter-defense strategy to host RNA silencing in PVY-potato interactions. The broad range of host genes targeted by PVY vsiRNAs in infected potato suggests a diverse role for vsiRNAs that includes suppression of host stress responses and developmental processes. The interactome scenario is the first report on the interaction between one of the most important Potyvirus genome-derived siRNAs and the potato transcripts. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12985-017-0803-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


Effectiveness of Protection of Early Potato Cultivars Against Phytophthora infestans Mont De Bary depending on the Protection Strategy
December 18 2017 by INKOA

The research was based on the field experiments conducted in 2014–2016 in the Variety Assessment Experimental Station, Central Center for Cultivar Assessment in Uhnin on the fawn soil, with a slightly acidic reaction, on rye good complex. The experiments were set up as random blocks in a dependent arrangement in three replications. The strategy of potato protection against late blight was the factor of a first line (from three to nine fungicide applications and a control object – without protection). Potato cultivars (5) with different level of resistance on Phytophthora infestans were the second experimental factor. 

Alternative Arable Cropping Strategies: A Key to Enhanced Productivity, Resource-Use-Efficiency, and Soil-Health under Subtropical Climatic Condition
December 11 2017 by INKOA

There are 115 million operational holdings in the country and about 80 % are marginal and small farmers. To fulfill the basic needs of house hold including food (cereal, pulses, oilseeds, feed, fodder, fiber etc.) warrant an attention about Alternative Arable Cropping Strategies (AACS). Undoubtedly, majority of the farmers are doing farming since long back but their main focus was individual components but not in a strategies way. The strategies is made in such a way that product of one component should be the input for other enterprises with high degree of complimentary effects on each other. The information on AACS in a systematic way is presented here.

Evaluation of an organic package of practice towards integrated management of Solanum tuberosum and its comparison with conventional farming
December 4 2017 by INKOA

A study was taken up during 2014-16 for evaluating the potential of an organic package of practice towards integrated crop production (green farming) in comparison to conventional farmers’ practice in West Bengal, India. Under green farming, compost was integrated with chemical fertilizer for soil management while organic plant/ pest management was undertaken utilizing Inhana Rational Farming (IRF) Technology. The study indicated higher yield (9.7 %), higher nutrient use efficiency and economic sustainability under green farming irrespective of study area or potato variety. Higher qualitative expression in terms of starch content, pulp pH, vitamin C etc. under green farming might be due to the organic plant management aimed at energization of plant biochemical functions. Soil quality development as noted under green farming might have been influenced by the on-farm produced compost containing rich self- generated micro flora (in order of 1016 per colony forming unit.). The study indicated that green farming may serve as an efficient substitute of conventional farming towards yield sustenance, abatement of food toxicity and quality end product; through higher use of renewable energy and activation of plant physiological functions.

Integrated farming system for sustainable hill agriculture: an option for Climate Smart Agriculture and natural resources management
November 9 2017 by INKOA

Sustainable development on our planet cannot be achieved without a major contribution from agriculture. People must be fed, and agriculture has to face the challenge of producing sufficient food for a rapidly growing world population whilst maintaining the world’s fragile resources. Modern farming systems have evolved to meet this need in a way that combines the essential requirements of profitability and productivity. Sustainable development must encompass food production alongside conservation of finite resources and protection of the natural environment so that the needs of people living today can be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Economic and ecological access to food could be only ensured by adopting farming system approach consisting of change from commodity-based to resource-based planning and integrated use and management of land, water and human resources to maximize income and employment. The primary goals of farming system is to maximize the yield of all component to provide study and stable income at higher level, rejuvenation of systems productivity and achieve agro-ecological equilibrium. Biotech stress management through natural cropping systems management and reducing the use of fertilizers and other harmful agrochemicals to provide pollution free, healthy produce and environment to the society. The Training Manual on "Integrated Farming System for Sustainable Hill Agriculture : An Option for Climate Smart Agriculture and Natural Resource Management" deals with various aspects of integrated farming system in a holistic way.

Potential of golden potatoes to improve vitamin A and vitamin E status in developing countries
November 9 2017 by INKOA

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the third most widely consumed plant food by humans. Its tubers are rich in starch and vitamin C, but have low or null levels of essential nutrients such as provitamin A and vitamin E. Transformation of potato with a bacterial mini-pathway for β-carotene in a tuber-specific manner results in a “golden” potato (GP) tuber phenotype resulting from accumulation of provitamin A carotenoids (α- and β-carotene) and xanthophylls. Here, it is investigated the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and vitamin E as α-tocopherol (αTC) in boiled wild type and golden tubers using in vitro digestion.

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