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Alternative Arable Cropping Strategies: A Key to Enhanced Productivity, Resource-Use-Efficiency, and Soil-Health under Subtropical Climatic Condition

December 11 2017 by INKOA
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There are 115 million operational holdings in the country and about 80 % are marginal and small farmers. To fulfill the basic needs of house hold including food (cereal, pulses, oilseeds, feed, fodder, fiber etc.) warrant an attention about Alternative Arable Cropping Strategies (AACS). Undoubtedly, majority of the farmers are doing farming since long back but their main focus was individual components but not in a strategies way. The strategies is made in such a way that product of one component should be the input for other enterprises with high degree of complimentary effects on each other. The information on AACS in a systematic way is presented here.

An investigation was undertaken during 2010–20111 to 2014-15 to assess the agro-economic potentiality of ten promising high-value crops alternative arable cropping systems in order to diversify the cereal–cereal based rotations and owning maximum profitability in subtropical climatic condition of western Uttar Pradesh production systems. Maize-potato–onion (M-P-O) system proved as best viable option in realizing highest production efficiency in terms of resource use efficiency, energy dynamic, monetary and employment efficiencies water-use efficiency and enzymatic activities besides enhancing soil health; followed by maizepotato- mungbean (M-P-Mb) system. Cowpea- potato-mungbean (Cp–P–Mb) and Maizegarlic- mungbean (M-G-Mb) system also observed higher net-returns, land use efficiency and monetary-efficiencies. The methodology is explained keeping in mind the work done so far to realize better productivity, profitability and sustainable production systems that would help to solve the fuel, feed and energy crisis, create more employment avenues, ensure regular income and encourage agricultural oriented industry.

Effectiveness of Protection of Early Potato Cultivars Against Phytophthora infestans Mont De Bary depending on the Protection Strategy
December 18 2017 by INKOA

The research was based on the field experiments conducted in 2014–2016 in the Variety Assessment Experimental Station, Central Center for Cultivar Assessment in Uhnin on the fawn soil, with a slightly acidic reaction, on rye good complex. The experiments were set up as random blocks in a dependent arrangement in three replications. The strategy of potato protection against late blight was the factor of a first line (from three to nine fungicide applications and a control object – without protection). Potato cultivars (5) with different level of resistance on Phytophthora infestans were the second experimental factor. 

Evaluation of an organic package of practice towards integrated management of Solanum tuberosum and its comparison with conventional farming
December 4 2017 by INKOA

A study was taken up during 2014-16 for evaluating the potential of an organic package of practice towards integrated crop production (green farming) in comparison to conventional farmers’ practice in West Bengal, India. Under green farming, compost was integrated with chemical fertilizer for soil management while organic plant/ pest management was undertaken utilizing Inhana Rational Farming (IRF) Technology. The study indicated higher yield (9.7 %), higher nutrient use efficiency and economic sustainability under green farming irrespective of study area or potato variety. Higher qualitative expression in terms of starch content, pulp pH, vitamin C etc. under green farming might be due to the organic plant management aimed at energization of plant biochemical functions. Soil quality development as noted under green farming might have been influenced by the on-farm produced compost containing rich self- generated micro flora (in order of 1016 per colony forming unit.). The study indicated that green farming may serve as an efficient substitute of conventional farming towards yield sustenance, abatement of food toxicity and quality end product; through higher use of renewable energy and activation of plant physiological functions.

Integrated farming system for sustainable hill agriculture: an option for Climate Smart Agriculture and natural resources management
November 9 2017 by INKOA

Sustainable development on our planet cannot be achieved without a major contribution from agriculture. People must be fed, and agriculture has to face the challenge of producing sufficient food for a rapidly growing world population whilst maintaining the world’s fragile resources. Modern farming systems have evolved to meet this need in a way that combines the essential requirements of profitability and productivity. Sustainable development must encompass food production alongside conservation of finite resources and protection of the natural environment so that the needs of people living today can be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Economic and ecological access to food could be only ensured by adopting farming system approach consisting of change from commodity-based to resource-based planning and integrated use and management of land, water and human resources to maximize income and employment. The primary goals of farming system is to maximize the yield of all component to provide study and stable income at higher level, rejuvenation of systems productivity and achieve agro-ecological equilibrium. Biotech stress management through natural cropping systems management and reducing the use of fertilizers and other harmful agrochemicals to provide pollution free, healthy produce and environment to the society. The Training Manual on "Integrated Farming System for Sustainable Hill Agriculture : An Option for Climate Smart Agriculture and Natural Resource Management" deals with various aspects of integrated farming system in a holistic way.

The effects of potato virus Y-derived virus small interfering RNAs of three biologically distinct strains on potato (Solanum tuberosum) transcriptome
September 19 2017 by INKOA

Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. 

Optimized loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-[potato] detection in potato leaves and tubers
September 19 2017 by INKOA

Apical leaf curl disease of potato is caused by a whitefly transmitted begomovirus, Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-[potato] (ToLCNDV-[potato]) in India. Detection of this virus is essential to manage the disease, particularly in healthy potato seed production systems. Large scale testing of micro-plants demands a simple, rapid and sensitive assay. Hence, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was developed for specific detection of ToLCNDV-[potato]. Six primers that recognize the coat protein gene sequence of ToLCNDV-[potato] were designed and LAMP assay was optimized using different concentrations of magnesium sulphate, betaine, dNTPs, Bst DNA polymerase and temperature. The results were assessed by visual observation of turbidity, colour change using SYBR green dye and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected the virus in infected plants collected from potato fields whereas no cross-reactions were observed with healthy plants and other potato viruses. The optimized assay was as sensitive as PCR assay and could detect up to 0.002 pg of total DNA. The assay could detect the virus in infected potato tubers and also in asymptomatic plants. Print-capture LAMP assay was developed and its application could reduce the cost and time of the assay in large scale testing under seed production

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